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Reduction of Nitro Compounds to Amines

Reduction of Nitro Compounds to Amines: Experimental Procedures

  • Reduction with molecular hydrogen:To a solution of the nitro compound in a suitable solvent, e.g. water, alcohols, dioxane, and alkanes, is added Raney nickel. The vigorously stirred mixture is hydrogenated at room temperature in a hydrogen atmosphere of approximately 100 bar.
  • Reduction with hydrazine: A solution of the nitro compound and hydrazine hydrate in alcohol is treated slowly at 30°C - 40°C with a suspension of Raney nickel in alcohol. Progress of the reaction is easily monitored by observing the development of nitrogen..
  • Reduction with tin and hydrochloric acid: The nitro compound is heated with finely granulated tin and half-concentrated hydrochloric acid. The precipitated amine hydrochloride is transformed into the free base with KOH and purified. This procedure is used for qualitative analysis in the laboratory.
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