Reduction of Nitro Compounds to Amines
Reduction of Nitro Compounds to Amines: Industrial Application
Production of aniline
Aniline is an important raw material in the chemical industry. It serves as the starting material in the production of, and sulfonamides. In 1998, the yearly production of aniline was one million tons worldwide.
In the past, a process used by BASF (Badische Anilin und Sodafabrik) involved the reduction of nitrobenzene with iron in hydrochloric acid. This process has the advantage that the generated iron(II,III) oxide can be used as pigment.
Today, aniline usage has far surpassed the sale of pigments. Modern production facilities, therefore, use catalytic hydrogenation with either Cu-, Cr-, Mn-, or Fe-catalysts.