Oxidation of Aromatic Side Chains
Oxidation of Aromatic Side Chains: Industrial Applications
Cost efficiency dictates that the oxidation is carried out directly with oxygen in the presence of a catalyst. Benzoic acid is synthesized from toluene and oxygen with cobalt-manganese acetate as catalyst.
Phthalic acid is synthesized from ortho-xylene and oxygen using gas-phase oxidation with vanadium pentoxide as catalyst. The mechanisms of these oxidations are not fully understood.