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Exercises: Homolysis

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Exercise

In most organic molecules' reactions, formations and breakages of covalent bonds are common. The cleavage of a covalent bond can occur in various ways.

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As a result of the deconstruction of a bond, the two bonding electrons may be allocated to only one of the combined atoms. This heterolytic cleavage yields two new radicals.

No, the heterolytic cleavage yields ions, not radicals!

As a result of bond breakage, the two bonding electrons may be allocated to only one of the combined atoms. This heterolytic cleavage yields ions.

In a homolytic cleavage, the two bonding electrons are allocated to only one of the combined atoms.

In a homolytic cleavage, the two bonding electrons are evenly allocated to each of the combined atoms.

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Exercise

A bond breakage in which the two bonding electrons are allocated to only one of the combined atoms is called ...

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... heterolytic cleavage.

... radicalysis.

... heterolysis.

... catalytic cleavage.

... catalysis.

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Exercise

A bond breakage in which the two bonding electrons are evenly allocated to each of the combined atoms is called ...

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... heterolysis.

... homolysis.

... heterogenic bond breaking.

... homolytic cleavage.

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Exercise

In the illustration of reaction mechanisms, the movement of single electrons is shown by an arrow ...

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... with a red arrowhead. The arrow always points in the direction that the electron is moving in.

... with a half arrowhead. The arrow always points in the direction that the electron is moving in.

... whose length is proportional to the speed of the electron.

... which always points in the opposite direction of which the electron is moving in.

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Exercise

In order to cleave a bond, ...

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... an ally must be found.

... it must be integrated.

... energy must be applied.

... a surplus of energy must be consumed.

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Exercise

The amount of energy that is necessary for a homolytic bond cleavage ...

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... is equal to the amount of energy that was released during the formation of the bond. This energy is called association energy.

... is twice the amount of energy that was released during the formation of the bond.

... is equal to the amount of energy that was released during the bond formation. This energy is called dissociation energy.

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Exercise

What is often used in radical reactions?

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Catalysts.

Radical compensators.

Radical formers.

Radical inhibitors.

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Exercise

How can radical formers be decribed?

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Radical formers are compounds that easily decompose into autonomous cells, which then form new autonomous groups by abstracting hydrogen atoms.

Radical formers are compounds that can easily be cleaved into radicals through the application of a small amount of energy. These radicals then generate the desired reagent radical by abstracting, for example, a hydrogen atom.

Radical formers are compounds that can easily be cleaved into radicals through the application of a small amount of energy. These radicals display a particularly low reactivity and are not relevant in any additional reaction.

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