The Three-Dimensional Structure of Molecules - Isomerism
Structure Theory in Organic Chemistry
To understand the behaviour of molecules it is important to know their three-dimensional structure. For example, questions could be whether the atoms of a molecule are arranged linearly or angularly? Has the molecule a flat or spatial shape? As a result of their tiny size, molecules are not visible and their structure can only be elucidated in an indirect way. The structure of a molecule is inferred from its behavior. Firstly, it is important to know the composition of a molecule. The information about the type and the atomic ratio of elements, yielded byof a large number of compounds, results in the following general statement:
- Dependent of its position in the periodic system, all elements can only have a certain number of bonds. This is called .
- In addition, the atoms of several types of elements can form one or more bonds to the same atom. A carbon atom for example can form one, two, three or four bonds to another carbon atom.