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Reactions of Aromatic Compounds (overall)

Exercises: Reactivity of Substituted Aromatic Compounds

Instruction : Exercise 1

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Fig.1

Exercise

The reaction rate of a multistep reaction is determined by the activation energy of the slowest individual step, which is called the rate-determining step. In the electrophilic aromatic substitution, the rate-determining step is usually the formation of the ...

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... π complex.

... Wheland complex.

... ο complex.

... σ complex.

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Exercise

First substituents, regarding a second electrophilic aromatic substitution, may be classified into two main groups. Into which of these groups would they then be classified?

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Active and inactive substituents.

Activating and deactivating substituents.

Activating and destabilizing substituents.

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Exercise

Which of the following statements regarding the qualities of activating and deactivating substituents are correct?

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Activating substituents destabilize the positive charge of σ complexes.

Deactivating substituents accelerate a second electrophilic aromatic substitution by destabilizing the intermediate σ complex.

Compared to benzene, activating substituents accelerate a second electrophilic aromatic substitution.

Deactivating substituents retard a second electrophilic aromatic substitution by destabilizing the intermediate σ complex.

Activating substituents destabilize the positive charge of σ complexes.

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