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On the origin of mitochondria: a genomics perspective. In: Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci.. 358
- Titel des ArtikelsOn the origin of mitochondria: a genomics perspective
- AbstractThe availability of complete genome sequence data from both bacteria and eukaryotes provides information
about the contribution of bacterial genes to the origin and evolution of mitochondria. Phylogenetic analyses based
on genes located in the mitochondrial genome indicate that these genes originated from within the
alpha-proteobacteria. A number of ancestral bacterial genes have also been transferred from the mitochondrial to the
nuclear genome, as evidenced by the presence of orthologous genes in the mitochondrial genome in some species and in
the nuclear genome of other species. However, a multitude of mitochondrial proteins encoded in the nucleus display
no homology to bacterial proteins, indicating that these originated within the eukaryotic cell subsequent to the
acquisition of the endosymbiont. An analysis of the expression patterns of yeast nuclear genes coding for
mitochondrial proteins has shown that genes predicted to be of eukaryotic origin are mainly translated on polysomes
that are free in the cytosol whereas those of putative bacterial origin are translated on polysomes attached to the
mitochondrion. The strong relationship with alpha-proteobacterial genes observed for some mitochondrial genes,
combined with the lack of such a relationship for others, indicates that the modern mitochondrial proteome is the
product of both reductive and expansive processes.
|Appaix, F.; Kuznetsov, A. V.; Usson, Y.; Kay, L.; Andrienko, T.; Olivares, J.; Kaambre, T.; Sikk, P.; Margreiter, R.; Saks, V.
Possible role of cytoskeleton in intracellular arrangement and regulation of mitochondria. In: Exp. Physiol.. 88
|Bay, D. C.; Court, D. A.
Origami in the outer membrane: the transmembrane arrangement of mitochondrial porins. In: Biochem. Cell Biol.. 80
|Carr, H. S.; Winge, D. R.
Assembly of cytochrome c oxidase within the mitochondrion. In: Acc. Chem. Res.. 36
|Chinnery, P. F.; Schon, E. A.
Mitochondria. In: J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry. 74
|Collins, T. J.; Bootman, M. D.
Mitochondria are morphologically heterogeneous within cells. In: J. Exp. Biol.. 206
|Das, A. M.
Regulation of the mitochondrial ATP-synthase in health and disease. In: Mol. Genet. Metab.. 79
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Effects of EGb 761 Ginkgo biloba extract on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. In: Pharmacopsychiatry. 36
|Embley, T. M.; van der Giezen, M.; Horner, D. S.; Dyal, P. L.; Foster, P.
Mitochondria and hydrogenosomes are two forms of the same fundamental organelle. In: Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci.. 358
|Genova, M. L.; Bianchi, C.; Lenaz, G.
Structural organization of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In: Ital. J. Biochem.. 52
|Heazlewood, J. L.; Millar, A. H.; Day, D. A.; Whelan, J.
What makes a mitochondrion?. In: Genome Biol.. 4
|Karlberg, E. O. L.; Andersson, S. G. E.
Mitochondrial gene history and mRNA localization: is there a correlation?. In: Nat. Rev. Genet.. 4
|Ly, J. D.; Grubb, D. R.; Lawen, A.
The mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in apoptosis; an update. In: Apoptosis. 8
- Titel des ArtikelsThe mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in apoptosis; an update
- AbstractMitochondrial dysfunction has been shown to participate in the induction of apoptosis and has even been
suggested to be central to the apoptotic pathway. Indeed, opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore
has been demonstrated to induce depolarization of the transmembrane potential (Δψm), release of apoptogenic factors and loss of oxidative
phosphorylation. In some apoptotic systems, loss of Δψm may be an early event in the apoptotic process. However, there are
emerging data suggesting that, depending on the model of apoptosis, the loss of Δψm may not be an early requirement for apoptosis, but on the contrary
may be a consequence of the apoptotic-signaling pathway. Furthermore, to add to these conflicting data, loss of Δψm has been demonstrated to not be required for cytochrome
c release, whereas release of apoptosis inducing factor AIF is dependent upon disruption of Δψm early in the apoptotic pathway. Together, the existing literature
suggests that depending on the cell system under investigation and the apoptotic stimuli used, dissipation of Δψm may or may not be an early event in the apoptotic pathway.
Discrepancies in this area of apoptosis research may be attributed to the fluorochromes used to detect Δψm. Differential degrees of sensitivity of these fluorochromes exist,
and there are also important factors that contribute to their ability to accurately discriminate changes in Δψm.
|Miyagishima, S.; Nishida, K.; Kuroiwa, T.
An evolutionary puzzle: chloroplast and mitochondrial division rings. In: Trends Plant Sci.. 8
|Newmeyer, D. D.; Ferguson-Miller, S.
Mitochondria: releasing power for life and unleashing the machineries of death. In: Cell. 112
|Nisoli, E.; Clementi, E.; Moncada, S.; Carruba, M. O.
Mitochondrial biogenesis as a cellular signaling framework. In: Biochem. Pharmacol.. 67
A multi-functional organelle mitochondrion is involved in cell death, proliferation and disease. In: Curr. Med. Chem.. 10
|Osteryoung, K. W.; Nunnari, J.
The division of endosymbiotic organelles. In: Science. 302
|Punj, V.; Chakrabarty, A. M.
Redox proteins in mammalian cell death: an evolutionarily conserved function in mitochondria and prokaryotes. In: Cell Microbiol.. 5
|Richter, O. H.; Ludwig, B.
Cytochrome c oxidase - structure, function, and physiology of a redox-driven molecular
machine. In: Rev. Physiol. Biochem. Pharmacol.. 147
- Titel des ArtikelsCytochrome c oxidase - structure, function, and physiology of a redox-driven molecular
- AbstractCytochome c oxidase is the terminal member of the electron transport chains of
mitochondria and many bacteria. Providing an efficient mechanism for dioxygen reduction on the one hand, it also
acts as a redox-linked proton pump, coupling the free energy of water formation to the generation of a transmembrane
electrochemical gradient to eventually drive ATP synthesis. The overall complexity of the mitochondrial enzyme is
also reflected by its subunit structure and assembly pathway, whereas the diversity of the bacterial enzymes has
fostered the notion of a large family of heme-copper terminal oxidases. Moreover, the successful elucidation of 3-D
structures for both the mitochondrial and several bacterial oxidases has greatly helped in designing mutagenesis
approaches to study functional aspects in these enzymes.
|Schon, E. A.; DiMauro, S.
Medicinal and genetic approaches to the treatment of mitochondrial disease. In: Curr. Med. Chem.. 10
|Searcy, D. G.
Metabolic integration during the evolutionary origin of mitochondria. In: Cell Res.. 13
|Tielens, A. G. M.; Rotte, C.; van Hellemond, J. J.; Martin, W.
Mitochondria as we don't know them. In: Trends Biochem. Sci.. 27
|Turcotte, L. P.
Mitochondria: biogenesis, structure, and function - symposium introduction. In: Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.. 35
|van Hellemond, J. J.; van der Klei, A.; van Weelden, S. W. H.; Tielens, A. G. M.
Biochemical and evolutionary aspects of anaerobically functioning mitochondria. In: Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci.. 358
- Titel des ArtikelsBiochemical and evolutionary aspects of anaerobically functioning mitochondria
- AbstractMitochondria are usually considered to be the powerhouses of the cell and to be responsible for the aerobic
production of ATP. However, many eukaryotic organisms are known to possess anaerobically functioning mitochondria,
which differ significantly from classical aerobically functioning mitochondria. Recently, functional and
phylogenetic studies on some enzymes involved clearly indicated an unexpected evolutionary relationship between
these anaerobically functioning mitochondria and the classical aerobic type. Mitochondria evolved by an
endosymbiotic event between an anaerobically functioning archaebacterial host and an aerobic alpha-proteobacterium.
However, true anaerobically functioning mitochondria, such as found in parasitic helminths and some lower marine
organisms, most likely did not originate directly from the pluripotent ancestral mitochondrion, but arose later in
evolution from the aerobic type of mitochondria after these were already adapted to an aerobic way of life by losing
their anaerobic capacities. This review will focus on some biochemical and evolutionary aspects of these
fermentative mitochondria, with special attention to fumarate reductase, the synthesis of the rhodoquinone involved,
and the enzymes involved in acetate production (acetate : succinate CoA-transferase and succinyl