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Einführung in die Neurotransmission

Schwann-Zellen

Die meisten Axone des peripheren Nervensystems sind von Myelinscheiden überzogen, die von Schwann-Zellen produziert werden. Im Unterschied zu den Myelin produzierenden Oligodendrocyten des zentralen Nervensystems (ZNS), die im Schnitt 15 Axone umhüllen, isoliert jede Schwann Zelle nur das Internodium zwischen zwei aufeinander folgenden Ranvier-Schnürringen (maximal ca. 1 mm).

Zu Beginn ihrer Entwicklung windet die Schwann Zelle einen Auswuchs der Zellmembran (die so genannte innere Zunge) nur einige wenige Male eng um das Axon. Mit der Zeit entstehen auf diese Weise sehr viele Schichten einer lipidreichen, elektrisch gut isolierenden Scheide (Myelin-Schichten). Im Unterschied zu adulten Oligodendrocyten im ZNS fördern auch noch ausdifferenzierte Schwann-Zellen das regenerative Wachstum von Axonen im peripheren Nervensystem. Im Tiermodell konnte gezeigt werden, dass in das ZNS transplantierte Schwann-Zellen helfen können, geschädigte Axone des ZNS zu regenerieren. Daher finden Schwann-Zellen sehr viel Beachtung (vergleiche die umfangreiche Literaturliste unten!).

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Literatur

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