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Subject - Biochemistry
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a peptide hormone containing 28 amino acid residues and is produced in many areas of the human body including the gut, pancreas and suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus in the brain.
In the digestive system VIP induces smooth muscle relaxation, stimulates secretion of water into pancreatic juice and bile, and cause inhibition of gastric acid secretion and absorption from the intestinal lumen.
In the brain, it is active in the area of the suprachiasmatic nuclei, the location of the master circadian pacemaker. VIP is an important component of the mammalian circadian timekeeping machinery.
VIP helps to regulate prolactin secretion and it is also found in the heart where it causes coronary vasodilation.
See also: peptide