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Subject - Immunology
Tumor necrosis factors (TNF) are a family of glycoproteins that are released by activated immune cells after contact with an antigen. They work in conjunction with other cytokines and as messenger substances in the psyconeuroimmunological network, as well as being a cytotoxic agent. Apoptosis, the cellular self-destruction program, is initiated by binding to the p75-TNF receptor.
TNF-α (cachectin) consists of three identical subunits, each with about 157 amino acids. It influences the immune response, inflammatory processes, blood formation, formation of blood vessels (angiogenesis), and lipid and protein metabolism. In addition, TNF-α has cytolytic and cytostatic effects on tumor cells. It is generated by macrophages (monocytes), lymphocytes, and mast cells.
TNF-β (lymphotoxin) selectively induces lysis of certain lines of tumor cells. It is made by T cells.