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Subject - Physical Chemistry, Thermodynamics
The differential reaction enthalpy is a partial differential quotient of the total differential of the state function . To demonstrate, this differential quotient is represented as a sum of the partial molarof educts and products.
The sum of partial molar enthalpies () can be written as a difference because the stoichiometric numbers of products are counted as positive while those of the educts enter the equation as negatives.
In case of an ideal reaction mixture, partial molar enthalpies can be substituted with molar enthalpies.
The integral reaction enthalpy is obtained by integration of the differential reaction enthalpies.
Frequently, the integral reaction enthalpy is described as the difference of molar enthalpies of the starting materials (products) and end products (educts) of a chemical reaction.
Molar instead of partial values can be used when assuming ideal conditions of the reaction mixture.
The integral reaction enthalpy is determined by measuring the heat of reaction of a reaction. Endothermic reactions show a positive enthalpy while reactions with negative enthalpy are called exothermic reactions.
If the pressure during the reaction remains constant, the integral reaction enthalpy equals thebeing given or taken up by the reaction.