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Subject - genetics

Mutations are changes in genetic information. They occur spontaneously or through mutagenic substances or radiation. For example, one base pair of the DNA may be replaced through one or more base pairs, and base pairs may be removed (deletion), or added (insertion). Mutations also occur when the DNA polymerase is defective and unable to correct reoccurring errors during DNA duplication.

These changes almost always cause the amino acid sequence in the resulting proteins to be altered, which may have a significant effect on the function of the proteins. Mutations in the regulatory regions of a gene or regulatory protein can have massive consequences for the affected organism, leading to tumors, for example.

Recommended Learning Units

Cell Cycle, Mitosis, and MeiosisLevel 260 min.

BiochemistryBiological FundamentalsCell Cycle

Cell reproduction is based on the principle of cell division. In order to divide a cell into two identical daughter cells, all of the genetic material and all cell components must be duplicated. Animated illustrations demonstrate the cell cycle responsible for this, as well as illustrating cell division by mitosis and meiosis.