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The Lewis base as a nucleophilic molecule or ion is donating a free pair of electrons to an electron acceptor (Lewis acid) to form a covalent bond.
Examples of Lewis bases are , , , .
Bases are differentiated between hard and soft bases. The smaller, more electronegative (less polarizable) and higher oxidized a base is the harder it is.
The product from the combination of a Lewis base and a Lewis acid is called an acid-base complex, coordination compound or electron pair-acceptor-donor complex. Acid-base complexes formed from hard bases and hard acids or from soft bases and soft acids are more stable than complexes from hard acids and soft bases or vice versa.