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Subject - physiology

The intestine is part of the digestive tract adjacent to the stomach. The stomach discharges into the 4-5 m long small intestine (intestinum tenue), which is followed by the roughly 1.5 m long large intestine (intestinum crassae). The last portion of the digestive tract is the rectum, which ends at the anus.

The small intestine is subdivided into the 30 cm long duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum. Within the small intestine, the majority of foods are enzymatically digested and the nutrients are absorbed through the intestinal mucosa by means of passive diffusion or active transport.

The first section of the large intestine consists of the 6-8 cm long caecum, which branches off into the 5-8 cm long appendix. The caecum leads to the colon. Inside the large intestine bacteria break down undigested food. The rest, together with some of the bacterial intestinal flora, is eliminated.