# inductive effectZoomA-Z

## Subject - Physical Chemistry, Organic Chemistry

The concept of the inductive effect developed by G. N. Lewis and Sir C. Ingold describes the influence of electropositive or electronegative substituents in organic molecules on their reactivity. The effect is caused by substituents exerting polarisation via σ bonds across the rest of the molecule. Information about the strength of the inductive effect is gained from dipole moments. In general, all inductive effects are compared to hydrogen as the standard substituent. Atoms or groups of atoms that are more electron-withdrawing than $H$ (e.g. $Cl$) show an -I effect while those that are electron-donating have an +I effect.

## Recommended Learning Units

### Reactions of Aromatic Compounds (overall)90 min.

#### ChemistryOrganic ChemistryAromatic Chemistry

First, the learning unit describes the mechanism of electrophilic aromatic substitution including the energetics, intermediates, and transition states. Further, it is discussed in which way the inductive and mesomeric effects of first substituents influence the reactivity of substituted aromatic compounds in second substitution. Then, the nucleophilic aromatic substitution's mechanism is explained inclusive of intermediates, transition states, etc.. Finally, the preparation and the structure of dehydroarenes (arynes) is depicted.

### Reactions of Aromatic Compounds - Ar-SE - Basics and Theory30 min.

#### ChemistryOrganic ChemistryAromatic Chemistry

First, the learning unit describes the mechanism of electrophilic aromatic substitution inclusive of energetics, intermediates, and transition states. Further, it is discussed in which way the inductive and mesomeric effects of first substituents influence the reactivity of substituted aromatic compounds in second substitution.