# fullereneZoomA-Z

## Subject - Organic Chemistry

In addition to and , fullerenes are another allotrope of . In 1985, chemists Robert F. Curl (USA), Harold W. Kroto (GB) and Richard E. Smalley (USA) discovered the formation of fullerene $C60$ by heating and evaporating graphite with a laser. In 1996, they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their discovery.

Fig.1
Structure of $C60$ fullerene

Fullerenes are hollow spheres which consist of pentagonal and hexagonal rings. The name was a homage to the American architect Richard Buckminster Fuller whose geodesic domes they resemble. Stable fullerenes always contain 12 five-membered rings which are surrounded on all sides by six-membered rings. The $C60$ modification with 12 five- and 20 six-membered rings meets these criteria as the smallest representative. The next stable member of the fullerenes, $C70$, differs from $C60$ by five additional $C2$ building blocks giving the molecule a lengthy look.

Only in 1990, research groups of W. Krätschmer in Germany and D.R. Huffman in USA developed a process for the preparation of larger amounts of fullerenes. Practical or technical applications of fullerenes do not exist. Nanotubes in which the carbon atoms are aligned in six-membered rings are modifications of fullerenes. A large number of applications has been developed or is being discussed for nanotubes. These include hydrogen storage, flat screens, composite materials, catalysts, membranes, and quantum wires.