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Subject - General Chemistry

Derived from the Latin destillare, drip downward. Distillation was already known in antiquity for separation and purification of liquid mixtures. The practice involves boiling a liquid mixture containing any number of components, condensing the resulting vapors by cooling and collecting the distillate. By using the different boiling points (volatility) of the components, a partial or complete separation of the starting mixture is possible (fractional distillation). Distillations are characterized by the type of operation.

  1. Distillation under normal or reduced pressure (vacuum distillation)
  2. Distillation with partial reflux of the condensate (rectification)
  3. Distillation of water-insoluble compounds (steam distillation)
Simple distillation apparatus