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Subject - General Chemistry
Derived from the Latin destillare, drip downward. Distillation was already known in antiquity for separation and purification of liquid mixtures. The practice involves boiling a liquid mixture containing any number of components, condensing the resulting vapors by cooling and collecting the. By using the different (volatility) of the components, a partial or complete separation of the starting mixture is possible (fractional distillation). Distillations are characterized by the type of operation.
- Distillation under normal or reduced pressure (vacuum distillation)
- Distillation with partial reflux of the condensate (rectification)
- Distillation of water-insoluble compounds (steam distillation)