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Subject - Immunology
The production of antibodies begins when the B cell has recognized its specific antigen and has simultaneously been stimulated with cytokines by a T helper cell that has also recognized the antigen. The B cell, which is still immature, then begins to divide (one cell division every 18 hours) and to build up the cell apparatus for protein biosynthesis. A B cell that has fully matured after 4-5 days is called a plasma cell; 90-95 % of the proteins it produces are antibodies. It secretes up to 2,000 antibodies every second (20,000 mRNA for 200,000 ribosomes per cell).
After this type of immune reaction, some B cells remain in a late, inactive, pre-plasma cell state. With renewed antigen contact, these memory B cells can mature into plasma cells much faster to battle the antigen with antibodies within a much shorter time span. Memory B cells are an important part of the immunological memory formed upon vaccination.
The "B" in B cell is derived from bone marrow, which is where the B cells are formed from blood stem cells.
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Our immune system is acting as a protective shield against infectious agents and microbial invaders. If this defence gets out of control and turns against the body’s own structures it may destroy healthy tissue and organs. The result is an autoimmune disease with severe or even life-threatening complications.