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Subject - physiology

The adrenal glands (lat. glandula adrenalis or glandula suprarenalis) are endocrine glands. In humans, the adrenal glands are located on the upper regions of the kidneys. A human adrenal gland weighs about 5 g, is about 3 cm long and 1.5 cm wide.

The adrenal glands are subordinate to the hormonal regulatory cycle and the vegetative nervous system. Over 50 hormones with a steroidal structure have been isolated out of the adrenal cortex, including those that have androgenic effects and those that effect carbohydrate metabolism (glucocorticoids) or potassium and sodium regulation (mineralocorticoids). For example, the order to biosynthesize glucocorticoids is issued by the adenohypophysial peptide hormone ACTH, which specifically binds to melanocortin receptors.

The adrenal medulla (lat. medulla glandulae suprarenalis) releases the stress hormones adrenalin and noradrenalin, which it produces from the amino acid L-tyrosine.